Zika virus is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegyptiand A. albopictus. Its name comes from the Zika Forest of Uganda, where the virus was first isolated in 1947. Zika virus is related todengue, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis, and West Nile viruses. The infection, known as Zika fever, often causes no or only mild symptoms, similar to a mild form of dengue fever. It is treated by rest. Since the 1950s, it has been known to occur within a narrow equatorial belt from Africa to Asia. The virus spread eastward across the Pacific Ocean between 2013 and 2014 to French Polynesia, New Caledonia, the Cook Islands, and Easter Island, and in 2015 to Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America, where the Zika outbreakhas reached pandemic levels. As of 2016, the illness cannot be prevented by drugs or vaccines. As of February 2016, there is evidence that Zika fever in pregnant women can cause abnormal brain development in their fetuses by mother-to-child transmission, which may result in miscarriage or microcephaly. It is not yet known whether Zika virus causes microcephaly. A link has been established with neurologic conditions in infected adults, including Guillain–Barré syndrome. In January 2016, the U.S. Centers for Di
Besnard M, Lastère S, Teissier A, Cao-Lormeau VM, Musso D. Evidence of perinatal transmission of Zika virus, French Polynesia, December 2013 and February 2014[PDF – 74 pages] . Euro Surveill2014;19(13):pii=20751.
Duffy MR, Chen TH, Hancock WT, et al. Zika virus outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia. N Engl J Med 2009;360:2536–2543.
Foy BD, Kobylinski KC, Chilson Foy JL, et al.Probable non-vector-borne transmission of Zika virus, Colorado, USA. Emerg Infect Dis2011;17(5):880–882.
Hayes EB. Zika virus outside Africa. Emerg Infect Dis2009;15(9)1347–1350.
Kusana S, Kato Y, Takasaki T, et al. Two cases of Zika fever imported from French Polynesia to Japan, December to January 2013[PDF – 74 pages]. Euro Surveill 2014;19(4):pii=20683.
Kwong JC, Druce JD, Leder K. Case report: Zika virus infection acquired during brief travel to Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2013;89(3):516‒517.
Lanciotti RS, Kosoy OL, Laven JJ, et al. Genetic and serologic properties of Zika virus associated with an epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis 2008;14(8):1232‒1239.
Musso D, Nhan T, Robin E, et al. Potential for Zika virus transmission through blood transfusion demonstrated during an outbreak in French Polynesia, November 2013 to February 2014[PDF – 74 pages]. Euro Surveill2014;19(14):pii=20761.
Oehler E, Watrin L, Larre P, et al. Zika virus infection complicated by Guillain-Barre syndrome – case report, French Polynesia[PDF – 74 pages], December 2013. Euro Surveill2014;19(9):pii=20720.
Tappe D, Rissland J, Gabriel M, et al. First case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection imported into Europe, November 2013[PDF – 74 pages].Euro Surveill 2014;19(4):pii=20685.
Zanluca C, de Melo VC, Mosimann AL, Dos Santos GI, Dos Santos CN, Luz K. First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil.Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2015 Jun; 110(4):569-572
James Cook (27 January 2016). “Zika virus: US scientists say vaccine ’10 years away’—BBC News”. BBC News. Retrieved28 January 2016.Bagla, Pallava (7 February 2016).
“How Bharat Biotech Made Its Breakthrough In Developing A Vaccine For Zika Virus”.Huffington Post (New Delhi). PTI. Retrieved9 February 2016.
Siddiqi, Zeba (3 February 2016). “Bharat Biotech says working on two possible Zika vaccines”. Reuters. Retrieved 8 February2016.
“Geographic Distribution – Zika virus – CDC”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 18 January 2016.
Gatherer, Derek; Kohl, Alain (2015-12-18). “Zika virus: a previously slow pandemic spreads rapidly through the Americas”.Journal of GeneralVirology.
“Zika virus in the United States | Zika virus | CDC”. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved2016-02-20.^ “Figure – Phylogeny of Zika Virus in Western Hemisphere, 2015 – Volume 22, Number 5 – May 2016 – Emerging Infectious Disease journal – CDC”. wwwnc.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-02-20.
“Zika’s long, strange trip into the limelight”. Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved10 February 2016.
Haddow, A.D.; Schuh, A.J.; Yasuda, C.Y.; Kasper, M.R.; Heang, V.; Huy, R.; Weaver, S.C. (2012). “Genetic Characterization of Zika Virus Strains: Geographic Expansion of the Asian Lineage”. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 6 (2): e1477.doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001477.PMC 3289602. PMID 22389730.
“ZIKA VIRUS (06): OVERVIEW 2016-02-09 19:58:3 Archive Number: 20160209.4007411”. Pro-MED-mail. International Society for Infectious Diseases.Dick, G. W. A.; Kitchen, S. F.; Haddow, A. J. (1 September 1952).
“Zika virus. I. Isolations and serological specificity”.Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 46 (5): 509–520.doi:10.1016/0035-9203(52)90042-4.PMID 12995440.
Justin Rowlatt (2 February 2016). “Why Asia should worry about Zika too—BBC News”. BBC News. Retrieved 2 February2016.
Ramzy, Austin (10 February 2016).”Experts Study Zika’s Path From First Outbreak in Pacific”. The New York Times(Hong Kong). Retrieved 12 February 2016.
Altman, L.K. (3 July 2007). “Little-Known Virus Challenges a Far-Flung Health System”. New York Times.
Duffy, M. R.; Chen, T. H.; Hancock, W. T.; Powers, A. M.; Kool, J. L.; Lanciotti, R. S.; Pretrick, M.; Marfel, M.; Holzbauer, S.; Dubray, C.; Guillaumot, L.; Griggs, A.; Bel, M.; Lambert, A. J.; Laven, J.; Kosoy, O.; Panella, A.; Biggerstaff, B. J.; Fischer, M.; Hayes, E. B. (2009). “Zika Virus Outbreak on Yap Island, Federated States of Micronesia”. New England Journal of Medicine 360 (24): 2536–43.doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0805715.PMID 19516034.
“Zika Travel Health Notices”.www.cdc.gov. CDC. Retrieved 24 January2016.
Lowes R (15 January 2016). “CDC Issues Zika Travel Alert”. CDC. Retrieved16 January 2016.Nina Burton (24 January 2016). “Zika virus prompts travel warning for Kiwis”.3News, New Zealand. Retrieved 24 January2016.
The New Zealand Government has followed Britain’s lead. Official advice recommends any women who are pregnant or plan to conceive in the near future to delay travel to countries affected with the Zika virus.“Microcephaly in Brazil potentially linked to the Zika virus epidemic, ECDC assesses the risk”. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved 18 January2016.
“Brazil Zika outbreak: More babies born with birth defects”. BBC. 21 January 2016.^ Zika virus disease in the United States, 2015–2016, as of February 10, 2016Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, 11 February 2016 retrieved 13 February 2016.
Foy, B. D.; Kobylinski, K. C.; Foy, J. L. C.; Blitvich, B. J.; Travassos Da Rosa, A.; Haddow, A. D.; Lanciotti, R. S.; Tesh, R. B. (2011).”Probable Non–Vector-borne Transmission of Zika Virus, Colorado, USA”. Emerging Infectious Diseases 17 (5): 880–2.doi:10.3201/eid1705.101939.PMC 3321795. PMID 21529401.
Thompson, Zachary (2 February 2016).”DCHHS Reports First Zika Virus Case in Dallas County Acquired Through Sexual Transmission” (PDF). Press release (Dallas County Health and Human Services). Retrieved 6 February 2016.
Schuler-Faccini L, Ribeiro EM, Feitosa IM, Horovitz DD, Cavalcanti DP, Pessoa A, Doriqui MJ, Neri JI, Neto JM, Wanderley HY, Cernach M, El-Husny AS, Pone MV, Serao CL, Sanseverino MT (2016). “Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly – Brazil, 2015”. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 65 (3): 59–62.doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6503e2.PMID 26820244.
Leonardo Aguiar. “Ministério da Saúde confirma relação entre vírus Zika e microcefalia”. Portal da Saúde – Ministério da Saúde – http://www.saude.gov.br Oliveira Melo, A. S.; Malinger, G.; Ximenes, R.; Szejnfeld, P. O.; Alves Sampaio, S.; Bispo de Filippis, A. M. (1 January 2016).
“Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg?”. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology 47 (1): 6–7.doi:10.1002/uog.15831. ISSN 1469-0705.PMID 26731034.
“Epidemiological update: Outbreaks of Zika virus and complications potentially linked to the Zika virus infection”. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Retrieved18 January 2016.
“Zika Situation Report” (PDF). World Health Organization. Retrieved February 5,2016.
Oduyebo T., Petersen E. E., Rasmussen S. A., et al. Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure — United States, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65(Early Release):1–6.
“Zika virus infection outbreak, Brazil and the Pacific region” (PDF). Stockholm:European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. 25 May 2015. pp. 4–5. Retrieved12 February 2016.
Musso, D; Nhan, T; Robin, E; Roche, C; Bierlaire, D; Zisou, K; Shan Yan, A; Cao-Lormeau, VM; Broult, J (10 April 2014).”Potential for Zika virus transmission through blood transfusion demonstrated during an outbreak in French Polynesia, November 2013 to February 2014″. Eurosurveillance 19 (14).PMID 24739982.
“For Health Care Providers: Clinical Evaluation & Disease”. Zika Virus. DVBD, NCEZID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 19 January 2016.“WHO – Dengue vaccine research”.World Health Organization.
Bennett, John E.; Dolin, Raphael; Blaser, Martin J. (2014). Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 1881. ISBN 978-1-4557-4801-3.
Maron, Dina Fine. “First Dengue Fever Vaccine Gets Green Light in 3 Countries”.Scientific American. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
Chastain, Mary (30 January 2016).”National Institutes of Health: Zika Virus Is a ‘Pandemic’”. Breitbart. Retrieved 13 February2016.
Martines, Roosecelis Brasil; Bhatnagar, Julu; Keating, M. Kelly; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Gary, Joy; Goldsmith, Cynthia; Hale, Gillian; Ritter, Jana (2016).”Notes from the Field : Evidence of Zika Virus Infection in Brain and Placental Tissues from Two Congenitally Infected Newborns and Two Fetal Losses — Brazil, 2015″. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 65 (6): 1–2. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6506e1er.
Oliveira Melo, A. S.; Malinger, G.; Ximenes, R.; Szejnfeld, P. O.; Alves Sampaio, S.; Bispo de Filippis, A. M. (2016-01-01). “Zika virus intrauterine infection causes fetal brain abnormality and microcephaly: tip of the iceberg?”. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology 47 (1): 6–7.doi:10.1002/uog.15831. ISSN 1469-0705.PMID 26731034.
Mlakar, Jernej; Korva, Misa; Tul, Nataša; Popović, Mara; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja; Mraz, Jerica; Kolenc, Marko; Resman Rus, Katarina; Vesnaver Vipotnik, Tina (2016-02-10). “Zika Virus Associated with Microcephaly”. New England Journal of Medicine 0:null.doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1600651. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 26862926.
“Question and Answers: Zika virus infection (Zika) and pregnancy”. CDC. CDC. Retrieved 15 February 2016.Fauci, Anthony S.; Morens, David M. (14 January 2016). “Zika Virus in the Americas – Yet Another Arbovirus Threat”.New England Journal of Medicine 374 (2): 160113142101009.doi:10.1056/NEJMp1600297.PMID 26761185.
“Zika Virus in the Caribbean”. Travelers’ Health: Travel Notices. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 15 January 2016.Petersen, Emily E.; Staples, J. Erin; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Fischer, Marc; Ellington, Sascha R.; Callaghan, William M.; Jamieson, Denise J. (2016). “Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak – United States, 2016”.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 65 (2): 30–33. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6502e1.PMID 26796813.
“Zika virus: Advice for those planning to travel to outbreak areas”. ITV News. 22 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
“Pregnant Irish women warned over Zika virus in central and South America”. RTE. 22 January 2016. Retrieved23 January 2016.“Zika: Olympics plans announced by Rio authorities”. BBC. 24 January 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
The Rio de Janeiro authorities have announced plans to prevent the spread of the Zika virus during the Olympic Games later this year. … The US,Canada and EU health agencies have issued warnings saying pregnant women should avoid travelling to Brazil and other countries in the Americas which have registered cases of Zika.“Zika virus triggers pregnancy delay calls”. BBC. 23 January 2016. Retrieved23 January 2016.
Knipe, David M.; Howley, Peter M. (2007). Fields’ Virology (5th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 1156, 1199. ISBN 978-0-7817-6060-7.
Faye, Oumar; Freire, Caio C. M.; Iamarino, Atila; Faye, Ousmane; de Oliveira, Juliana Velasco C.; Diallo, Mawlouth; Zanotto, Paolo M. A.; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Bird, Brian (9 January 2014). “Molecular Evolution of Zika Virus during Its Emergence in the 20th Century”. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases8 (1): e2636.doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002636.PMC 3888466. PMID 24421913.
Enfissi, Antoine; Codrington, John; Roosblad, Jimmy; Kazanji, Mirdad; Rousset, Dominique (16 January 2016). “Zika virus genome from the Americas”. Lancet 387(10015): 227–8. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00003-9. PMID 26775124.
Zanluca, C.; de Melo, V. C.; Mosimann, A. L.; Dos Santos, G. I.; Dos Santos, C. N.; Luz, K. (June 2015). “First report of autochthonous transmission of Zika virus in Brazil.”.Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 110 (4): 569–72.
Kuno, G.; lChang, G.-J. J. (1 January 2007). “Full-length sequencing and genomic characterization of Bagaza, Kedougou, and Zika viruses”. Archives of Virology 152 (4): 687–696. doi:10.1007/s00705-006-0903-z.PMID 17195954.
Lanciotti, Robert S.; Lambert, Amy J.; Holodniy, Mark; Saavedra, Sonia; Signor, Leticia del Carmen Castillo. “Phylogeny of Zika Virus in Western Hemisphere, 2015”.Emerging Infectious Diseases 22 (5).doi:10.3201/eid2205.160065.
Dengue and the Aedes aegypti mosquito CDC Dengue Branch, San Juan, PR, 2 February 2012, 2 pages.Hayes, E. B. (2009).
“Zika Virus Outside Africa”. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15 (9): 1347–50.doi:10.3201/eid1509.090442.PMC 2819875. PMID 19788800.
Constância F. J. AyresemailIdentification of Zika virus vectors and implications for control Lancet Infectious Diseases, online publication ahead of print, 4 February 2016. Elsevier doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(16)00073-6
Gilda Grard, Mélanie Caron, Illich Manfred Mombo, Dieudonné Nkoghe, Statiana Mboui Ondo, Davy Jiolle, Didier Fontenille, Christophe Paupy, Eric Maurice Leroy Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa) – 2007: A new threat from Aedes albopictus? PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 6 February 2014;8(2):e2681. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002681
Zammarchi L., Stella G., Mantella A., Bartolozzi D., Tappe D., Günther S., Oestereich L., Cadar D., Muñoz-Fontela C., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J. “Zika virus infections imported to Italy: clinical, immunological and virological findings, and public health implications” Journal of Clinical VirologyFebruary 2015;63:32-5.doi:10.1016/j.jcv.2014.12.005. (subscription required)
Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Sinka, Marianne E.; Duda, Kirsten A.; Mylne, Adrian Q. N.; Shearer, Freya M.; Barker, Christopher M.; Moore, Chester G.; Carvalho, Roberta G.; Coelho, Giovanini E. (7 July 2015). “The global distribution of the arbovirus vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus”. ELife 4: e08347.
“Aedes aegypti”. ecdc.europa.eu. European Centre for Disease Protection and Control. Retrieved 25 January 2016.“Mosquitoes capable of carrying Zika virus found in Washington, D.C.”. University of Notre Dame. 2016.^ “FACTBOX – Zika virus spreads rapidly through Latin America, Caribbean”.news.trust.org. Thomson Reuters Foundation. Retrieved 26 January 2016.Mitchell, Cristina. “As the Zika virus spreads, PAHO advises countries to monitor and report birth anomalies and other suspected complications of the virus”.www.paho.org. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
Mitchell, Cristina. “PAHO Statement on Zika Virus Transmission and Prevention”.www.paho.org. Pan American Health Organization. Retrieved 25 January 2016.^http://edition.cnn.com/2016/01/26/health/zika-what-you-need-to-know/
Alexandra M. Oster, John T. Brooks, Jo Ellen Stryker, et al. “Interim Guidelines for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus — United States, 2016”, Morbity and Mortality Weekly Report2016;65(Early Release 5 February 2016): 1–2
Musso D., Roche C., Robin E., Nhan T., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V. M. “Potential Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus”Emerging Infectious Diseases 2015;21:359–61.open accessSternberg, Steve (22 January 2016).”Vaccine Efforts Underway as Zika Virus Spreads”. US News & World Report. Retrieved 28 January 2016.